The selection of disinfectants should follow the principle of "high efficiency, safety, stability, economy, and convenience". The selected disinfectants should be efficient, safe, non-toxic, and less irritating. In order to achieve the purpose of effective disinfection, different disinfectant types should be selected according to different application scopes.
According to the different levels of action of disinfectants, they can be divided into three categories: high-efficiency disinfectants, medium-efficiency disinfectants, and low-efficiency disinfectants. According to their physical state at the time of use, these wholesale disinfectant products can also be classified into liquid disinfectants, solid disinfectants, and gas disinfectants.
This type of disinfectant can kill all microorganisms, including various bacterial propagules, bacterial spores, fungi, mycobacterium tuberculosis, enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, and so on. Among them, high-efficiency disinfectants such as surface disinfectant tablets that can make items meet the sterilization requirements are also called sterilizers.
Commonly used high-efficiency disinfectants are glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, bleaching powder, sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, trichloroisocyanuric acid, methyl hydantoin compounds, double-chain quaternary ammonium salts, and organic mercury.
Besides not being able to kill bacterial spores, this type of disinfectant products can kill other microorganisms such as bacterial propagules (including mycobacterium tuberculosis), fungi, and viruses. Common medium-effective disinfectants include iodine-containing disinfectants, alcohol-based disinfectants, phenol-based disinfectants, and so on.
This type of antiviral disinfectant solution can kill part of bacterial propagules, fungi, and enveloped viruses, but cannot kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacterial spores, and non-enveloped viruses. Common low-efficiency disinfectants include quaternary ammonium salts disinfectants such as benzalkonium bromide, diguanidine disinfectant like benzalkonium chloride, and chlorhexidine, metal ion disinfectants like mercury, silver, copper, and Chinese herbal medicine disinfectants.
Benzalkonium Chloride, also known as Jieermie, is a low-level disinfectant and is very suitable for cleaning and disinfection of skin wounds. Its minimum effective dose concentration is 0.004%, and it has strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, propagule yeast, and fungi.
Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt cationic surfactant with a bactericidal effect. It is a mixture of dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride. Its bactericidal properties are derived from its quaternary ammonium ion head group and alkane chain. Quaternary ammonium ions are positively charged in water. It can be adsorbed on the surface of negatively charged microorganisms to form micelles, and gradually penetrate into the lipid layer of the cytoplasm, thereby changing the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing the extravasation of cell contents, hindering its metabolism, and then playing the role of killing microorganisms.
With the large-scale and intensive development of the pig industry, various diseases are also increasing. Disinfectant products play an important role in large-scale pig farming. The scientific and rational selection of disinfectants is crucial to the disinfection effect of pig farms, and plays an important role in promoting the healthy development of animal husbandry, protecting environmental sanitation, and maintaining ecological balance.